Vehicle: Honda Civic: Registration Number: WF 85817, Year: 1992, Mileage: 181 350 km, Engine Number: D15B26834351, Type: D15B7 (1.5i 16V), Capacity: 1493cm3, Power:75 kW (101 Horse Power at 5900 rev/min and 124 Nm at 5000 rev/min), LPG installation.
Measurements were made at CHMS Jacek Chojnacki, ul. Pruszkowska 32, 05-830 Nadarzyn in Poland, with use of SPCS15 device for compression pressure measurement, and analyser type TecnoTest model 481 for exhaust emission analysis.
Compression pressure measurement:
Ceramizer® application /mileage [km]
0 km / mileage 181 341
2124 km / mileage 183 474
The biggest compression pressure increase (up to 136%) was obtained on 3rd cylinder, namely from 5,5 bar to 13 bar.
Before Ceramizer® application compression pressure on 3 cylinders was below 10 bar what attested to significant wear and tear of the engine. Ceramizer® application resulted in an increase of a nominal compression pressure on all cylinders and at consequently renovation of the engine followed.
Exhaust emission analysis performed before and after making 2124 km since Ceramizer® application confirmed decrease of toxic substances emission namely carbon monoxide (CO) by 17%, hydrocarbon (HC) by 20% and carbon dioxide (CO2) by 3,6%.
|Before (mileage of 181 341 km)||After making 2124 km (mileage 183 474 km)|
|Idle gear revolutions||1080 RMP||920 RMP|
|CO||1,73||1,43 (decrease by 17 %)|
|CO2||19,9||19,2 (decrease by 3,6 %)|
|HC||200||160 (decrease by 20 %)|
Test confirmed an idle gear revolutions decrease from 1080 rev/min to 920 rev/min and at the same time smooth operation of the engine.
Test showed that electrodes got lighter colour what attested to decreased oil consumption.
After measurement with odometer reading at 183 474 km oil was collected and the engine was started (without the oil) on idle gear to prevent any defects before test driving without the oil.
Total time of the engine operation on idle gear without the oil was 30 minutes - 3 x 10 minutes, at intervals of 15 minutes.
Then the oil was collected and 1 dosage of Ceramizer® was applied into the engine.
The vehicle made another 1108 km with the oil in the engine. In total the car made 3240 km with Ceramizer® (what was enough for formation of a ceramic coating), and next the car was tested without the oil.
On 14.11.2007 at 184 582 km mileage (3240 km made since Ceramizer® application) driving test without oil was performed on the road at an average air temperature of +1oC.
The engine was heated up till a working temperature and the oil was collected.
The engine was started and around 10 o’clock the vehicle set off from Nadarzyn (nearby Warsaw) to Katowice (Spodek- Concert Hall) and back to Nadarzyn.
Route made without the oil: E67: Nadarzyn-Mszczonów-Rawa Mazowiecka- Piotrków Trybunalski- E75: Kamieńsk-Częstochowa-Koziegłowy-Siewierz- route 86 Będzin- Katowice (Spodek) - Będzin- E75: Siewierz Koziegłowy-Częstochowa-Kamieńsk-Piotrków Trybunalski- E67: Rawa Mazowiecka-Mszczonów-Nadarzyn.
The test was monitored and observed by journalists of the following newspapers: Motor, Super Express and TV channels: TVN Turbo and an editorial team of Motokibic TV - a program broadcasted by TVP3 Katowice.
Engine dismantling confirmed a normal wear of crankshaft bearing pillows (for an engine of over 180 000 km mileage), wear was within limits in spite of 562 km made without the oil.
Test results regarding the engine that made 562 km confirmed an effective action of Ceramizer® with reference to protection of engines against wear and tear and confirmed its unique properties. We would like to undermine that the main objective of the test was to examine Ceramizer® impact on protection of friction surface (by no mans the objective was to demonstrate that it is possible to operate an engine without oil or that the oil is inessential). We collected the oil to provide extreme conditions for the engine operation.
On account of extreme conditions of test we strongly advise against performing similar tests on other vehicles.
Articles on the performed test (Polish language):
Vehicle: Honda Civic 1.6 16v of 1991
Engine mileage: 234 thousand 683 km /145 thousand 738 miles
Registration number: WI 92009
Ceramizer® products applied to the engine and gearbox.
Oil changed about 1500 km /930 miles prior to application of Ceramizer® at odometer reading of 233050 km /144724 miles.
First measurement taken prior to application of Ceramizer® - at odometer reading of 234683 km / 145738 miles.
Second measurement taken after application of Ceramizer® and driving for about 1400 km /870 miles - at odometer reading of 236083 km /146607 miles.
1. Maximum increase by 3 kG/cm2 i.e. by 26.3 % of end compression pressure was obtained on the 3rd cylinder.
2.Increase to nominal values and equalization of end compression pressure obtained in all cylinders, in other words the engine returned to practically out-of-factory condition.
3. Increase of maximum torque Nmax by 3 Nm (affecting dynamics of the vehicle).
4. Increase of maximum power Pmax by 2 HP (affecting dynamics of the vehicle).
Diagrams of torque N and power P curves in function of engine rpm.
Measurement of end compression pressures at open throttle (left - prior to application of Ceramizer® / right - after application of Ceramizer® and driving for about 1400 km /870 miles):
Data transferred to table:
|Prior to application of Ceramizer®||12,3||12,8||11,4||11,5|
|After 1400 km /870 miles from application of Ceramizer®||14,1||14,0||14,4||14,4|
|Percentage increase||14,6 %||9,4 %||26,3 %||25,2 %|
Tests were carried out at the Przemyslowy Instytut Motoryzacji PIMOT (Motor Industry Institute) in Warsaw, and the tested car was a Daewoo Nexia.
Vehicle: Daewoo Nexia
Engine mileage: 179 thousand 407 km /111 thousand 411 miles
During the first visit to the PIMOT, end compression pressures were measured (reflecting the engine condition) and vehicle dynamics were measured (accelerating from 60 to 140 km/h /37 to 87 mph in 5th gear). Subsequently Ceramizers® were applied to the engine and gearbox.
After driving about 2654 km / 1600 miles (from the moment of application of Ceramizers®), measurements were taken again. Measurement of end compression pressures at open throttle showed increase and equalization to nominal values in all cylinders. Maximum increase was obtained of 1.8 bar, i.e. by 16.3% of end compression pressure in the 4th cylinder , in other words the engine practically returned to nominal condition. This is precisely reflected in the following diagram and table.
Data transferred to table:
|Date of measurement||Odometer reading||Mileage since application of Ceramizer®||I cylinder [bar]||II cylinder [bar]||III cylinder [bar]||IV cylinder [bar]|
|Percentage increase||8,2 %||7,4 %||11,2 %||16,3 %|
Owing to application of Ceramizers®, we also obtained 9.9% increase in vehicle dynamics in terms of acceleration from 60 to 140 km/h /37 to 87 mph in 5th gear.
|Date of measurement||Odometer reading||Mileage since application of Ceramizer®||Distance|
|Shortening of acceleration distance by:||
As a part of the research project of an electronic diagnostics device in real time (on-line) for toothed gear purposed for general use called Vibrex along with expert program Gearexpert enabling detection of damaged drive, experimental research financed by the Scientific Research Committee was carried out with use of a special additive for oils named CERAMIZER ®.
That comprises a part of monograph of Doctor Engineer Jerzy Tomaszewski and Józef Drewniak, entitled “Toothed Gear Seizing”.
Source : www.zent.pl
Processes linked with gear seizing, are connected with friction ratio between two cooperating wheels as a result of wheel inter-tooth slip. Friction generates heat on teeth surface and under some conditions results in gear seizing. For the purpose of research we chose the CERAMIZER®, a gear oil additive manufactured by VIDAR from Warsaw.
Ceramization of metal surfaces results in generation of ceramic- metal layer on metal surfaces of machines and devices susceptible to friction during operating. By building up of a ceramic- metal layer CERAMIZER® regenerates and rebuilds metal surfaces susceptible to friction, permanently adhering to metal on molecular level. The generated metal-ceramic layer is hard, durable and has a low friction ratio, able to superbly carry away heat and is high-temperature and mechanical load- resistant. This layer fills, coats and smoothes micro-defects and deformations of metal surfaces subjected to friction. As a result of a high local temperature (above 900ºC) at places of friction melting of particles of CERAMIZER® occurs. These particles of CERAMIZER® are characterized by a high level of adhesion to metal and carry particles of metal included in oil or grease into used spots (selective transfer) where there is elevated temperature as a result of friction and then diffusion of the particles follows. In these spots particles of metal and CERAMIZER® rebuilt surfaces generating a ceramic – metal layer.
As a result of CERAMIZER® diffusion with metal surface a crystal structure of metal gets improved and outer layer gets hardened and filled up (a durable, inseparable ceramic- metal protective layer is generated).
Friction contact properties lubricated with oil and added CERAMIZER® were initially examined with Roll-Block test apparatus T-05 manufactured by ITE in Radom. Test apparatus T-05 is purposed for estimation of properties of plastic smears, oils and solid smears and wear resistance during friction of metals and plastics and to examine seizing resistance of low-friction coats applied on heavily loaded machine parts. Test apparatus is designed to carry out research according to methods stipulated in American standards: ASTM D 2714, D 3704, D 2981 and G 77. Due to applied solutions and equipment fitted to machine tests it was possible to carry out tests of smeared and dry slide contact and oscillatory motion with possibility to adjust slide speed and amplitude. The examined contact may be intensive or spread. Operation of test apparatus is presented on figure 7.10.
Sample grip 4 with semicircular insert 3 comprises self-adjusting clamping of block 1, that provides for tight fitting to roll 2 and the same uniform spreading of thrust on contact. Two-lever loading system allow for applying force pressing down block toward roll P with accuracy of 1%. Roll rotates with n monotonous, rotating speed or performs oscillation motion with f frequency. In the research, friction force, linear friction unit wear, temperature of block and oil were reported on. Tested elements of T-05 stand is a sample of block and anti-sample-roll. Cylindrical surface of rotating roll along with side surface of block comprise a spread contact- 6,35 mm wide.
A block-steel ŁH15 of 60HRC hardness, roll- steel ŁH15 of 60HRC hardness were used during research. Research included:
Applied research method included determination of parameters for a basic oil type FVA-2 without and with addition of CERAMIZER®. Research was carried out for unit load of 120kg, slide speed of 0,5m/s and friction distance of 10 800m. Table 7.1 presents results for a basic oil and oil with additive.
List of results of tribiliological parameters. Table 7.1
Along with decrease of friction ratio block temperature fell by 28% in relation to block temperature with the reference oil.
Obtained results on test apparatus shall be verified for conditions of contact prevailing during meshing and impact of additive on other parameters of gear shall be defined. The main object of research was to determine the impact of oil additive on dynamic properties of cylindrical gear. According to description provided by manufacturer of mechanisms Ceramizer generated a metal-ceramic layer on cooperating tooth surfaces that during generation were subject to self-smoothening. The ceramic-metal coat provides for smoothing of micro-cracks, scratches and spalling. As a result of performed ceramization a proper profile of tooth is obtained and considerable decrease of inter-teeth friction. The main objective of research was to determine the impact of ceramic layer generated on teeth surface on gear performance parameters. Research included measurement of following parameters:
Research was carried out on a closed power stand SB-J2 presented on figure 7.12.
Research was carried out on three pairs of wheels of cinematic- construction parameters that are included in table 7.4. Wheels were made from steel type 18HGT and subjected to carburizing up to 0,2 depth of module and subjected to hardening up to 56 ±2 HRC hardness. During every experiment pinion was loaded with 650 +6 Nm twisting moment.
During every test a fresh oil, type TRANSOL SP-150 with addition of CERAMIZER® was used.
Parameters of wheels used for testing. Table 7.2
Table 7.3 includes number of tests, number of used samples and anti-samples and values of instants loading pinion.
List of numbers of gear wheels used for tests and values of load moments for pinion. Table 7.3
Every test was carried out for 48 hours (according to manufacturer of CERAMIZER®, the whole process shall follow up to 40 hours of gear work under loading).
Figure 7.13 shows measurement stand applied for the purpose of determining gear performance parameters. In casing 1 were fixed wheels of sample and anti-sample- listed in table 2. Sensor 8 measures acceleration of gear body vibrations. Temperature sensors 9,14 measure temperature of gear body and temperature of inner oil casing. Sound level gauge 10 records fluctuations of acoustic pressure every 2 minutes. Results were recorded with DasyLab system, version 4.0 item 12,13.
Shaft torque moment with pinion was measured with extensometer system 6 with telemetric transfer of signal 7 to data logistics system 12. Rotating speed of inlet shaft tested gear 1 was adjusted with inverter 15. Measurement of residual stress on teeth surface was made with x ray diffraction instrument type ASTX2002 presented on figure 7.14.
Measurement of performance deviation of teeth was obtained with the Hoefler measurement machine. On each of measurement tests performance deviations were determined with reference to a wheel before and after ceramization.
Measurement results will be presented for every measured performance parameter respectively. These results were recorded during the whole experiment that is since gear turning on, later on during ceramization and during operating of Ceramizer® on sides of teeth.
Oil temperature inside gear and body was measured with thermocouples type J every minute during the whole test.
Figure 7.16 presents fluctuations of temperature of gear body during three measurement tests.
In both cases given values determine gain in temperature in relation to environment temperature.
Analysis of charts shows that during ceramization there are not any significant changes of temperature within area of heat flow
(horizontal line). Only in case of test 1 ( figure 7.15 and 7.16) a significant oil temperature and body gear temperature decrease was reported especially in final phase of test. A large thermal inertia of gear may cause significant delays in temperature fluctuations of oil and gear casing what results in undetected temperature fluctuation during heat flow.
On ceramization of side teeth surface , amplitude of vibration acceleration was measured. Figure 7.17 presents fluctuations of vibration acceleration amplitude with reference to three tests.
Analysis of charts shows decrease of gear body vibrations during ceramization. Clearly seen is the time zone for generation of layer and breaking in of wheels. After this, process levels of vibrations stabilize and fluctuate around a constant value. If we consider vibration amplitude level as of a starting one then we finally receive almost twice as much decrease of vibration amplitude. Table 7.4 presents average values of vibration speed and acceleration amplitude in the first and the last hour of an experiment.
Comparison of effective vibrations amplitude. Table 7.4
Equivalent acoustic pressure was as a measured noise parameter in period of two minutes with the use of filter type A. Noise was measured with gauge type SVAN-912 E class I with recording of results. Figure 7.18 presents results with reference to noise measurement for test 1.
Taking into consideration results it is possible to distinguish two zones: the first one with clear tendency for ceramization of teeth side surface and resulting in decrease of noise level and the second one of stabilized noise fluctuation around an average value. Table 7.5 includes results of calculations for an average acoustic pressure value on the right and on the left of a red line shown on figure 7.18.
Comparative results of acoustic pressure measurement. Table 7.5
Measurement of residual stress was made for wheel sample No. 61-03-05-30 for tooth No. 1,5,10,15,20,15 on the right. Measurement was taken for teeth after ceramization and grinding.
Table 7.6 includes measurements results of residual stress for direction tangent to tooth profile according to figure 7.19.
Taking into consideration theimpact of ceramization on residual stress values it shall be noted, that this process is indifferent to residual stress values. Obtained fluctuations of residual stress before and after ceramization are analogical as of the wheel working with oil without additive.
The results of the measurements of residual stress on teeth surface. Table 7.6
As a result of relaxation processes there are stress fluctuations and they are within a margin error. It shall be noted that volume of ceramization process for residual stress values is an advantageous trait of apparatus as entering negative residual stress for carbonizing and hardening results in increasing of surface strength and resistance to tooth base bending fatigue. Every process decreasing negative values of residual stress would be disadvantageous and would decrease tooth strength.
Measurement of teeth deviations for wheels before and after ceramization were determined respectively for tooth No. 1,5,10,15. Measurement of performance deviations for teeth after ceramization were performed on active surface of teeth excluding lower area of cone apex entering into tooth root. Reference analysis of meshing performance deviations after ceramization shows significant impact of this process on forming of reference apex. Probably a hard ceramic layer causes significant grinding of common apex what consequently gives the same effect as a modification of tooth head profile (comparison of charts for the purpose of determination profile of tooth deviation F before and after ceramization).
Impact of oil additive for toothed gear of skewed teeth was analyzed on stand described in chapter 6. Cerazmization process of surface was obtained thanks to addition of CERAMIZER® to oil and work of gear under nominal load of 50 hours. After this time a mass temperature of tooth side surface was determined and it was compared to mass temperature obtained for tooth without ceramic layer. Table 7.7 contains measurement results along with calculated values of heat generated on teeth surface.
Comparison thermal parameters of meshing after and before the ceramization. Table 7.7
Obtained results of decreased friction ratio for gear are comparable with results obtained with device T-05.
There are following main effects of generating ceramic layer of tooth surface:
CERAMIZER® has a significant impact on the level of vibrations of gear. Almost twofold decrease of vibrations parameters as an effective amplitude of speed and acceleration is reported.
Decrease of vibration goes along with decrease of noise of equivalent acoustic pressure level. This value is around 1,6 dB(A).
In ceramization there is not any process of reduction of initial negative residual stress caused by hardening what is very advantageous. Ceramization does directly impact reduction of tooth side wear resistance as well as fatigue of teeth basis.
Due to very high toughness of surface a ceramic coat makes for easier and faster wearing in. It is evident on common apex. Effects of this process are comparable to modification of common apex profile.
After ceramization process inter-tooth friction ratio decreases by 30%.
Also mass consumption falls significantly by around 60%.