ENGINE REPAIR, ENGINE REBUILD

Engine repair, engine rebuild

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1. Causes of engine wear
2.
Diagnosis of engine wear
3. Engine repair and engine rebuild

 

1. Causes of engine wear

Excessive engine wear is very often caused by improper vehicle operation, and subsequent momentary poor lubrication (momentary oil flow discontinuation). Momentary poor lubrication may follow during cold engine excessive load, excessive engine load at low RPM and high RPM (temperature increase causes oil thinning), as well as “aggressive driving”, old pump oil or the clogging of oil passages.

Engine wear is also caused by failure to observe the scheduled change of engine oil.

 After travelling for 10-25 thousand km, oil (depending on the type and kind) lubricating properties deteriorate.  This causes the friction to increase and the mechanism operation temperature to rise. It consequently results in premature wear.
That is why regularly checking the engine oil levels  is very important. Low levels of engine oil and the failure to perform scheduled oil checks directly results in engine wear. Dry operation of the engine results in friction and reduces heat transfer.  This causes the wear of other drive unit parts that are subjected to friction.

Ceramizer oil additive® provides ceramic-metal coating that protects mechanisms against friction.

This product also protects the engine, in the case of a low oil level or its poor lubricating qualities ( such as during the starting of the cold engine– so called “Dry start”) or when maintaining high engine RPM (when oil thinning follows that results in poor lubricating qualities

Car using oil, engine oil disappearing consumption

Figure 1. Oil level checks and regular oil replacement are crucial for ensuring the long-life of engine parts.

Few people know that an excessive amount of oil is also harmful. It causes extreme pressure on the lubricating system, which may result in leaks ( such as of the oil pan gasket or crankshaft sealing).
It is important to ensure regular checks and to fill up the cooling fluid. In the case of any leakage or failure, repairs of the cooling system should be done immediately.


Low levels of cooling fluid or poor performance of the cooling system very often due to poor operation of the thermostat during the winter season or the failure of the radiator fan) may result in engine overheating, serious failures and consequently costly repairs. You are  very lucky if you only have gasket cylinder head failure.  However, if there is overheating, seizing or breaking of piston rings, it may result in head breaking or failure, piston swell and engine seizure.

Seizure of the engine, engine overheating wear

Figure 2. Engine overheating may result in piston swelling and engine seizure.

 

Seizing of piston rings results in poor performance and elasticity, what causes difficult engine starting and excessive oil consumption. If compression measurement produces a poor result for only a single cylinder, it may indicate seizing of piston rings (or broken ones) of this cylinder.

Low compression in one cylinder fix

Figure 3. Broken piston ring– often as a result of engine overheating.

 


Ceramizer® additive reduces friction coefficient, which prevents engine overheating and the risk of engine seizure or damage ( such as in the case of cooling or lubrication system failure) and enables temporary engine operation in these conditions.


Engine wear is also affected by the condition of the ignition system ( such as a timer-distributor, spark plugs or wires).

The poor technical condition of these elements may not only result in vehicle poor performance and increased fuel consumption, but also premature failure of valve seats or knocking, which is very dangerous for the engine.
The same thing is true with the fuel system (with the injection pumps or fuel injectors). Particularly in the case of diesel engines, failure or poor precision of any element will have a negative impact on the daily operation (with poor performance and difficult starting). However,  it may also result in the failure of other systems,   which could require the costly replacement or repair of the entire drive unit.


Note: it is important to change the oil as recommended by the manufacturer, particularly when  operating the car for short distances.
Operating the car mainly for short distances, results in the corrosion of bearings and other engine parts. The drive unit does not generate enough heat to remove the condensed water vapour, which results in corrosion inside the engine. Due to pollution sediments in the oil, acids and deposits are generated which cause corrosion of  the bearings and result in the accelerated  wear of engine parts. Thanks to hygroscopicity (water vapour absorption) Ceramizer® successfully prevents corrosion inside the engine.
Running the engine for short distances may also prevent fuel evaporation. As a result, more fuel is fed inside the heated engine, and the fuel washes away the oil before it drains to the sump. This gives the oil poor lubricating qualities (it becomes a mixture of oil and fuel) and may cause premature engine wear. In this case, the ceramic-metal coating provided by Ceramizer® efficiently protects the engine and prevents its further wear.

 

2. Diagnosis of engine wear

Driving is an enjoyable experience, if the car is in good shape. That is why proper diagnosis is essential. Some symptoms or minor defects that go unnoticed for a long time, may, in fact, cause serious failure and put the car out of operation.

The following is a list of symptoms that may indicate necessary engine overhaul:

  • Excessive oil consumption.
  • Noisy and irregular operation of the drive unit.
  • Difficult engine starting.
  • Black smoke (especially when starting the engine or at a high RPM).
  • Excessive fuel consumption.
  • Fumes released from the oil filler cap during engine operation.

Engine burning oil fix, why is my car burning oil

Figure 4. Black smoke often indicates the engine is burning oil.

 

An affordable technical inspection enables the performance of a professional assessment.

The basic engine inspection involves the measurement of the compression pressure with a manometer mounted on the spark plug opening of the cylinder. This makes it possible to determine the condition of pistons, piston rings, as well as inlet and outlet valves, what affects the tightness of the combustion chamber. Any difference of the compression pressure between cylinders should not be over 0.2 MPa. More information concerning compression pressure measurement and the oil test that enables the determination of the friction of the piston ring– piston– cylinder assemblies is available on: engine compression test guide.

Engine compression test, low compression engine symptoms

Figure 5. Compression pressure measurement enables the determination of the friction of the: piston ring– piston– cylinder assemblies that most often cause oil burning.

 

After a few years, the car may have reduced cylinder compression pressure  that results from piston ring wear.

Ceramizer® in most cases increases and equalizes compression pressure up to the normal level and at the same time regenerates engine parts.

We recommend carrying out the diagnosis of the engine and measuring the compression pressure before and after applying the engine additive (Ceramizer®) to determine the actual efficiency of this regeneration method.

Engine compression test, low compression in one cylinder fix

Figure 6. Compression pressure before and after the application of Ceramizer®.

 

Oil compression measurement facilitates the determination of the main bearing and crankshaft bearing wear. If the pump is in good shape, the greater the wear of the bearings, the more interaction there is between the bearings and the crankpins, and the lower the oil pressure. The car’s owner manual specifies the oil pressure value at the idle gear or at some RPM (usually 3000 RPM). To perform the oil compression measurement, first dismantle the engine oil pressure sensor and then replace it with the gauge that enables oil pressure measurement.


Any noisy operation, ticking or grinding (particularly during car starting) should not go unnoticed.
Note that any diagnosis of noisy operation should be treated as a reference aid due to imprecise results
.  It may require additional expertise.
Any rattling and metallic sounds that are emitted from the bottom part of the engine (near the crankshaft) that increase when pressing the acceleration pedal, may be caused by crankshaft and connecting rod bearing wear (main rod bearings). In extreme cases, the wear of these parts may result in sudden engine stoppage and blockage of the piston’s inside cylinders.

Worn engine, engine knocking fix

Figure 7. Excessive wear of connecting rod bearings may result in noise emitted "knocking" from the bottom part of the engine.

 

If after starting the engine, any rattling or grinding noise is emitted from the top part of the drive unit and the noise continues after the temperature increase of the cooling fluid,  with the engine oil at recommended level, it may indicate valve ticking. This kind of failure is actually caused by wrong valve lash setting. In older engines, valves are fitted with mechanic lifters. In this case, the valve lash adjustment should be carried out on cold engine with a”feeler gauge” that involves the adjustment of a clearance between the pushed valve stem end and its opening mechanism.

 With the proper adjustment, this clearance is eliminated after the engine heats up to normal temperature due to material thermal expansion–which ensures quiet engine  operation.

knocking noise in engine, engine knocking causes

Figure. 8. In case of noisy engine operation the adjustment of valve clearance is most often recommended.

 

While older cars may have adjustable valve trains that you can tighten or loosen to change how the pushrod operates, newer models usually do not have this option.  This is because they are fitted with hydraulic valve lifters that eliminate mechanical adjustment. It is theoretically a long life solution, but in practice hydraulic valve lifters are very vulnerable to lubricating system malfunctions and lubricating oil quality (contaminated or old engine oil and oil filter).

Hydraulic valve lifters damage may be indicated by noise emitted near the valve covers (the top part of the engine). A clear and metallic ticking indicates excessive valve lash. The noise is initially caused by the hydraulic valve lifters only immediately after starting the engine. However, over time, the noise becomes constant (due to damage and deterioration).

That is why engines with hydraulic lifters require frequent oil change. Oil sediments cause oil passages to clog in the hydraulic lifter, which results in improper valve lash.  Since there is no final valve movement, in addition to the worrying noise, burned valve heads and valve seats may also be evident

.

Additive for Valve lifters noise

Figure 9. Faulty hydraulic lifters may result in ticking/knocking – in particular, during engine heating up.

 

In this case (improper valve lash), the valve also may not rest on the valve seat. As a result, a pressure force acting on the valve is actually transferred to the camshaft. This force is powerful enough to break the oil film between the arm (valve lifter) and the camshaft. As a result, these parts work dry which results in sudden temperature growth and premature wear of these assemblies.

Worn camshaft, worn camshaft symptoms

Figure 10. Faulty hydraulic lifters may result in camshaft wear.

 

Ceramizer® reduces noise and ensures smooth operation of the valve lifters. It also clears the hydraulic lifter routes.

 

3. Engine repair, engine rebuild

You shouldn’t panic if an engine rebuild is the only solution for your engine. It is now essential to make a wise decision which can help you to avoid many problems and unnecessary expenditures.

With any car repair, it is possible to choose service provided by the garage or the DIY method,  as long as we have the required skills and know-how.

If you select DIY repair, you must be aware that it requires precision, know-how,  considerable time and sophisticated tools.  This includes a tool set and additional specialist equipment, such as a torque wrench for screw tightening or a device used for piston ring assembly.

The place where repair is to be provided is also important (preferably a garage pit). In the past, it was possible to make repairs outside, only using a hammer, screwdriver, pliers and 10, 13 and 17 spanners.  Modern engines feature complicated construction, precise timing, and difficult access to assemblies that require the use of specialized equipment. Consulting the owner’s car manual will also be necessary.

How to avoid engine overhaul

Figure 11. DIY engine repair requires the use of specialized tools,  such as a device for clamping piston rings before placing the piston into the cylinder.

 

It is necessary to check the types of tools and spanners that are required to make repairs  for a particular car. Sometimes, even a minor repair,  such as unscrewing the alternator or oil pump is impossible, if you do not have the required torque driver, crow foot wrench, triangle or rhombus wrench. Expansions for box spanners and ratchets are also  very helpful.


It is important to note that an engine overhaul will put the car out of operation for at least  one to two weeks. This is because it involves the disassembly, replacement and assembly of mechanisms, as well as ordering spare parts and having some of the work delivered by specialized repair shops. It is also necessary to have some services supplied in terms of regeneration (such as ”skimming the head” or “injection pump regeneration”).


If you do not have required skills, know-how and necessary tools or devices, the best option will be to have the repair made in the repair shop. It is actually worthwhile to find a repair shop or professional that has expertise and experience in this field. Websites and social networking, as well as references from your acquaintances may be very helpful. However, it is usually the price that influences our decision.  This may not be the best criterion,  since an affordable price does not always guarantee reliable service and good quality work.  It may later result in the need for additional expenditures.

 

Engine rebuild, motor overhaul

Figure 12. Engine repair - it is worthwhile finding a repair shop or a professional that has expertise and experience in this field.

 

The best solution is to have the engine rebuild performed by the authorized service station or the repair shop that has expertise in this field and which supplies complex services. Remember that in case of garages that use subcontractors for some services, you would pay more. Service suppliers that actually provide a guarantee are preferred,  since it  offers protection for any complaints about faulty parts or defects caused by workmanship or which require additional adjustment. Even though you may be entitled to consumer rights, it is not of much benefit, if your car is out of operation for a long time and you have to initiate court proceedings.

The best option is to have a Service Agreement with the repair shop that specifies a price for the supplied service (on the basis of the initial cost calculation of purchased spare parts), as well as a completion date. Nothing happens by accident,  especially with regard to the purchase of spare parts. Some suppliers offer special prices for spare parts that may be very beneficial and will  reduce repair costs. However, it is worth checking spare part prices, in order to have full control over expenditures and to prevent any dishonest practices.

It is also recommended that you stay in touch with the repair shop on a regular basis (by phone) during all heavy repair phases. The best solution is to arrange for the professional to consult you before any costly purchase.

Engine repair includes the restoration of parts to ensure optimal performance and excellent technical condition. The heavy repair scope is usually determined during the engine diagnosis.  Precise diagnosis of the engine is actually only possible after engine removal. Please consult the car repair owner’s manual for a detailed description of engine heavy repair. This guide only presents a summary of the major concepts.

When cylinder size is within the permitted tolerances, the replacement of piston rings is usually provided and cylinder honing is done. The poor tightness of piston rings results in a decrease in compression, as well as power loss and poor engine performance. It can also cause excessive oil consumption due to its partial burning and the sediments that remain on the cylinder walls. As a result, seizure or breaking of piston rings may occur.

 piston ring-wear replacement, oil consumption

Figure 13. Oil consumption is most often caused by faulty piston rings.

 

If cylinder sizes are over the permitted tolerances specified in the car’s technical data (most often caused by excessive wear – in the oval or conical cylinder), machining is usually  provided and sometimes larger pistons are applied.

engine rebuild, new cylinders

Figure 14. In case of cylinder excessive wear, machining or replacement is required. Sometimes instead of cylinder machining, new cylinder liners are used also.

 

The main bearings, connecting rod bearings and camshaft bearings should be replaced, if they demonstrate any signs of wear. Grinding shall follow the crankshaft pin journal, based on the appropriate size, if necessary.

Crankshaft bearing wear, engine problems

Figure 15. Worn main bearings (of crankshaft).

 

When removing pistons with the con rod, it is recommended to check the lash, between the valve and con rod, by rotating the piston and con rod in the opposite direction. Any noticeable lash will indicate excessive wear of the assembly and the necessary correction of con rod and pistons openings, as well as the use of new pistons (parts coupling the piston with the con rod).


After dismantling the drive unit, it is also worthwhile to inspect the camshaft cams, as well as the sockets and valve guides, and to check the engine body tightness.


For motor rebuilds, the replacement of other parts is sometimes required.  This could include the valve sealing, V belts, cooling fluid pump, timing belt, plugs, oil, gaskets, camshaft sealing, crankshaft sealing etc. Usually in case of engine disassembly (preferably by the garage that has expertise in this field),”pre-machining of the head” is provided to ensure a perfectly smooth surface (with the planning machining head), of the head contact with the engine block.

Worn valve guide oil seals

Figure 16. Brown rubber parts namely valve sealing. Worn valve sealing results in "oil consumption".

 

The next step is to analyse all of the costs that are related to engine overhaul. The newer and more expensive the car is, the more likely that heavy engine repair will be recommended.
For example, in the case of an Opel Astra with 350 thousand km, an engine rebuild will cost as much or more than the value of the car.

The total engine rebuild costs depend on the following factors:

  • Repair method and supplier
  • Spare parts and consumable type
  • Type, model and age of the car
  • Repair scope including type and number of regenerated parts.

The costs will actually be higher in case of the engine overhaul by an authorized service station, which will charge you based on its pricelist.

Spare parts also significantly affect the total engine repair costs. If the engine overhaul is necessary, it is worth spending more in order to be sure of the final results. Since an engine repair results in a significant expenditure, it is recommended that exclusively use original spare parts that are more expensive than substitutes. The substitution of unknown origin spare parts may later result in significant unplanned expenditures. The use of substitute spare parts should be discussed with experts at the repair shop and relevant websites should be consulted.

Engine repair cost, engine rebuild cost

Figure 17. In the case of an engine overhaul, the list of required spare parts may be long and include a set of gaskets, ring pistons and bearings.

 

It is actually the quantity of replaced parts that primarily determines the total cost of heavy engine repair.  For example, sometimes the simply repair of diesel engines may involve the timing belt and glow plugs. By contrast, the regeneration of just the unit injector, may only result in moderate costs.  However, in the case of a detected failure  (such as the injection pump of a common rail system and the necessary replacement/machining of cylinders and use of new piston rings), the cost of heavy repair may increase several times.

How much cost engine rebuild, motor rebuild cost

Figure 18. Precise estimate of engine rebuild costs is difficult, as it depends on the scope of repair and quantity of replaced parts.

 

What is the cost of engine repair?

Heavy repair costs depend on many factors, including car make, model, engine type, spare parts and service supplier, as well as the scope of the heavy repair.


The analysis below presents reference costs for the engine repair of a naturally aspirated engine with a 1.6l capacity.


Minor repair, if replacement is required of the piston rings, gaskets, valve sealing, oil, filters, ignition plugs, timing gear and “pre-machining of the head” – the costs could be up to 600 GBP (~950 USD).
Total engine overhaul, also including cylinder boring, crankshaft grinding, purchase and replacement of bearings, purchase and replacement of pistons, fan belts, water pump- the costs could be up to 1500 GBP (~2400 USD).


These cost estimates are based on the assumption that the engine rebuild is done in a repair shop with expertise in this field, and that it supplies good quality services and uses original parts.  The actual costs of engine repair increase significantly for engines of greater capacity (more cylinders), as well as for turbocharged engines. However, it is possible to reduce these costs, if you decide on DIY repair.

You may also consider the purchase of a second-hand engine to replace your worn one. Although it may be cheaper, this solution has some disadvantages.  This is because you will receive no guarantees with regard to the engine condition or its performance. Another factor is that due to long stoppage of some second-hand engines (even several months), some internal parts may be rusty.

 

buy used engine or repair rebuild engine

Figure 19. With the purchase of a second-hand engine, its condition is questionable and may be no better than the engine that is being replaced.
 

In case of drive unit replacement, you shall also take into account the cost of replacement, as well as other necessary work for the engine replacement (including timing gear replacement, oil and cooling fluid change).

In the case of engine/ mechanism medium wear, it is recommended to apply Ceramizer® oil additive.

This product enables the rebuilding of worn piston rings (that most often cause excessive oil consumption and smoke from the exhaust pipe).


This process does happen immediately. The ceramic coating is generated (bonding of additive particles and metal particles is created) due to a high temperature at surfaces subjected to friction, after at least 1500 km. This preparation also regenerates engine parts and restores their nominal performance parameters.

 

Figure 20. Ceramizer® – improves operation of worn engine parts (e.g. worn piston rings) and prevents against further wear.

 

The provided ceramic-metal coating protects the engine against further wear. This tough, durable and strong coating features a low friction ratio, perfectly transfers heat and is resistant to high temperatures/mechanical load.

engine burning oil fix

Figure 21. Ceramic coating generated by Ceramizer® additive, immediately after travelling at least 1500 km.


Note that application of this engine additive may not bring positive results,  if there is assembly failure ( such as a broken piston ring) or if the engine is demonstrating excessive wear. These kinds of failures require disassembly and repair. Since the coating is provided exclusively at surfaces where metal-against metal friction results, it will not help in case of worn valve sealing (due to the friction of metal against rubber).

Additive costs are very low compared to the costs of engine repair. Affordable Ceramizer® does not cause any negative impact and application hereof may improve engine operation what has been confirmed by many user opinions – over 250 pages.

It is possible to prevent costly engine heavy repair by  following these 10 maintenance tips:

  1. Change the engine oil and oil filter after every 10 thousand km (as often as it is recommended in your owner's manual).
  2. Change any consumables (use original spare parts or recommended ones only) on a regular basis including: fuel filters, air filters, spark plugs, glow plugs etc.
  3. Regularly check maintenance fluid levels (in particular oil and cooling fluids).
  4. Do not overload the cold engine.
  5. If acceleration is necessary, do not overload the engine in the current gear at low RPM ( particularly in the case of gasoline engines), but preferably reduce the gear and then press the acceleration pedal.
  6. Avoid aggressive driving.
  7. Always avoid maintaining a high engine RPM.
  8. Do not overload the engine in the idle gear.
  9. In the case of turbocharged engines, wait around a minute at low RPM before switching off the heated engine (after a long journey or dynamic driving).
  10. Apply Ceramizer®, a preparation which provides for preventive maintenance of the engine parts when working in extreme conditions (in the case of a very high temperature or cold engine frequent starting).

Visit: www.ceramizer.com to find out more about Ceramizer® preparation.